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Σάββατο, 11 Μαΐου 2013

Ο θαυμαστός κόσμος της μεταλλείας!

The Weird and Wonderful World of Mining by tzeferisp


Ποιά είναι η παλαιότερη εκμετάλλευση ορυχείου στον κόσμο; Ποιοί ήταν οι πρώτοι μεταλλωρύχοι; Πότε και πού έγινε η πρώτη εκμετάλλευση χρυσού στον κόσμο;

Βελτιώστε τις γνώσεις σας για την ιστορία της εξορυκτικής δραστηριότητας και μάθετε από πού και πότε ξεκίνησε η ιστορική διαδρομή της μεταλλείας, ο περίεργος αλλά και θαυμαστός αυτός κόσμος!
  • The oldest known mine  on archaeological  record: The "Lion Cave":  Radiocarbon dating shows this cave to be about 43,000 years old. At this site paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre.
  • First use of Black Powder for Rock Blasting: 1627 was the year recorded for the first use of black powder for rock blasting (Hungary).
  • The world’s oldest copper mine The world’s oldest producing copper mine has passed 50,000 tonnes of the red metal.The mine at Skouriotissa, owned by Cypriotcompany Hellenic Copper Mines, has been worked since the Bronze Age.
  • The first miners: from 4000 BC By 4000 BC deep shafts are cut into the hillside at Rudna Glava, in the Balkans, to excavate copper ore. This robbing of the earth's treasures is carried out with due solemnity. Fine pots, bearing produce from the daylight world, are placed in the mines as a form of recompense to propitiate the spirits of the dark interior of the earth. By about 3800 BC copper mines are also worked in the Sinai peninsula. Crucibles found at the site reveal that smelting is carried out as part of the mining process.
  • Romans Mined the World:  It is the Romans who developed large scale mining methods, especially the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts. The use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts. The water was used for a variety of purposes, including using it to remove overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted or crushed ores, and driving simple machinery.
  • Salt Valued as Highly as Gold:In ancient times salt was traded ounce for ounce for gold. Salt was once made into 'coins' and 'cakes' in China and the Mediterranean for use as currency. Several cultures levied taxes on salt. Gold was first legalized as money as early as 1091 BC in China as an alternative to silk. Gold is still the only universally accepted medium of exchange.
  • World’s First Coal Cutter: The world's first coal cutter was developed by Richard Sutcliffe, who worked as a miner and manager at Modubeagh and Clogh between 1857 and 1885. He also invented a conveyor belt that was developed in Castlecomer. Mr Sutcliffe brought his conveyor belt to Wakefield, England where he established a factory to manufacture it. A Sutcliffe belt is still produced in that factory today.
  • First Discovery of Gold in NSW, Australia: Gold was first discovered in New South Wales in 1823 by a public official named James McBrien while he was on a survey mission in hills near the Fish River east of Bathurst.
  • First Advances in Mining Technology:Steam was first applied for industrial power around 1700 in Cornwall, England, for working mine pumps. The invention of steam railway locomotives and mine hoists followed a few years later.
  • World’s First Mining Academy:In 1762, the world's first mining academy was established in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary.
  • Cultural Significance of Copper:Copper (Cu) has a cultural significance as it was the first metal used by man (probably as early as 7000 BC). Neolithic man mined native copper and used it as a substitute for stone; its malleability enabled easy shaping of tools by beating it. Copper was smelted as early as 3500 BC at Timna in Israel. Its property of alloying with other metals (particularly tin) was discovered about 500 years later and heralded the Bronze Age, which started in southern Europe between 3000 and 2500 BC.
  • Alaskan Mining Leads to the Invention of the Electric Razor:Retired U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Schick came up with the idea for the electric razor whilst in Alaska staking a mining claim.
  • Coal Changes the World:The Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the early 19th century was fuelled by coal. Then, in the 1950s and 1960s, it was eclipsed by petroleum as the world's most used fuel, but the oil shocks of the 1970s resulted in a worldwide resurgence of interest in coal as an energy source because of its relative abundance.
  • USA first Gold Rush:North Carolina (not California) was the site of the United States' first gold rush. In 1799, 12-year-old Conrad Reed discovered a large, glittering rock in Little Meadow Creek on his father's farm in Cabarrus County, N.C. The boy lugged the curiosity home to show his family, not realizing that he had discovered a17-pound gold nugget. They kept the nugget until 1802 when they sold it to a jeweler for $3.50
           [by Tzeferis Petros] [του Πέτρου Τζεφέρη]